На просторах westeros.org нашелся потрясающий список произносивший, оформленный по-человечески. Прежде подобные списки опирались лишь на то, как произносили то или иное имя сам Мартин или чтецы аудиокниг. По-моему, довольно любопытно и можно использовать в нашей энциклопедии. Во всяком случае, по отношению к тем именам, которые по-русски не будут звучать дико. Aegon — [ˈeɪgən] Aegor — [ˈeɪgɔɹ] Aemon — [ˈeɪmən] Aenar — [ˈeɪnɑɹ] Aerion — [ˈeɪɹiən] Aeron — [ˈeɪɹən] Aerys — [ˈeɪɹɨs] Alayne — [əˈleɪn] Allyria — [əˈliːɹiə] Alys — [ˈælɨs] Alysane — [ˈælɨsən] Amerei — [ˈæm(ə)ɹeɪ] Archmaester — [ˈɒːɹt͡ʃmeɪstɚ] Arianne — [eɪɹiˈæn] Arryn — [ˈeɪɹɨn] Arya — [ˈɒːɹjə], [ˈɒɹiə] Arys — [ˈeɪɹɨs] Asha — [æˈʃə] Ashara — [əˈʃɒɹə] Asshaii — [əˈʃɒɪ] Asshai'i — [əˈʃɒʔiː] Astapor — [ˈæstəpɔɹ] Aurane — [ˈɔːɹən] Ayrmidon — [ˈeɪɹmɨdɒn] AzorAhai — [əˈzɔɹ əˈhaɪ] Baelish — [ˈbeɪlɨʃ] Baelor — [ˈbeɪlɔɹ] Balerion — [bəˈleɹiən] Balon — [ˈbeɪlən] Baratheon — [bəˈɹæθiən] Barristan Selmy — [ˈbeɹɨstən ˈsɛɫmi] Bellegere Otherys — [ˈbɛlɨgiːɹ ɔˈθeɹɨs] Bolton — [ˈboʊɫtən] Braavos — [ˈbɹɒːvos] Bran — [ˈbɹæn] Brienne — [bɹaɪˈɛn], [bɹiˈɛn] Brynden — [ˈbɹɪndən] Catelyn Tully — [ˈkʰæt(ə)lɨn ˈtʰʌli] Celtigar — [ˈkɛɫtɨgɑɹ] , [ˈkɛɫtɨgɚ] Cersei — [ˈsɝseɪ], [ˈsɝsiː] Cerwyn — [ˈkeɪɹwɨn] Chataya — [ʃəˈtajə] Clegane — [kʰlɨˈgeɪn] Cleos — [ˈkʰliɔs] Colloquo Votar — [ˈkʰɔːləkwoʊ ˈvoʊtɒɹ] crannog — [ˈkʰɹænəɡ] Craster — [ˈkʰɹæstɚ] cyvasse — [sɨˈvɒːs] Daario Naharys — [ˈdɒːɹioʊ nəˈheɹɨs] Daemon — [ˈdeɪmən] Daena — [ˈdeɪnə] Daenerys — [deɪˈneɹɨs] Daeron — [ˈdeɪɹən] Dany — [ˈdæni] Davos — [ˈdævos] Dayne — [ˈdeɪn] Donal Noye — [ˈdɔnəɫ ˈnɔɪ] Doran — [ˈdɔɹən] dosh khaleen — [ˈd̪oʃ kʰaˈliːn] Dothraki — [d̪oˈθɾaki] Drogo — [ˈd̪ɾogo] Drogon — [ˈdɹoʊgɒn] Dywin — [ˈdaɪwɨn] Elaena — [ɛˈleɪnə] Eleyna — [ɛˈleɪnə] Elia — [ˈɛliə] Essos — [ˈɛsos], [ˈiːsɔs] Euron — [ˈjuːɹɒn] Eyrie — [ˈiːɹi] Frey — [ˈfɹeɪ] Gendry — [ˈgɛndɹi] Genna — [ˈdʒɛnə] Gerion — [ˈgeɪɹiən] Gerris — [ˈgɛɹɨs] Ghiscari — [ɣɪʃˈkaɾi] Ghys — [ˈgiːs], [ˈɣis] Gilly — [ˈgɪli] Grazdan mo Eraz — [ˈgɾɑʒd̪ən mɵ eˈɾɑːʒ] Gregor — [ˈgɹɛgɔɹ], [ˈgɹɛgɚ] Gyles — [ˈdʒaɪlz] Harghaz — [harˈɣɑːʒ] Hizdahr zo Loraq — [ˈhɪʒd̪ɑːr zɵ lɔˈɾɑːχ] Hodor — [ˈhoʊdɔɹ] Hoster — [ˈhɔstɚ] Illyrio Mopatis — [ɪˈliːɹioʊ moʊˈpɒtɨs], [iˈliːɾio moˈpatis] Ilyn Payne — [ˈɪlɨn ˈpʰeɪn] Jaehaerys — [d͡ʒeɪˈheɪɹɨs] Jaime — [ˈd͡ʒeɪmi] как английское Jamie, а НЕ испанское Jaime [ˈxaɪme] Jalabhar Xho — [ˈd͡ʒɒləbɚ ˈʃoʊ] Janos Slynt — [ˈd͡ʒænəs ˈslint], [ˈd͡ʒɒnɔs ˈslint] Jaqen H'ghar — [ˈd͡ʒɒxɨn həˈɣaːɾ] Jeine Poole — [ˈd͡ʒeɪn ˈpʰuːɫ], НЕ [ˈd͡ʒiːni ˈpʰuːɫ] Jeor — [ˈd͡ʒɔɹ] Jhaqo — [ˈd͡ʒako] Jhiqui — [ˈd͡ʒiːkwi] Jhogo — [ˈd͡ʒogo] Joffrey — [ˈd͡ʒɔːfɹi] Jojen — [ˈd͡ʒoʊd͡ʒən] Jorah — [ˈd͡ʒɔɹə] Joramun — [ˈd͡ʒɔɹəmən] Jyana — [d͡ʒaɪˈænə], [d͡ʒiˈɒnə] Kevan — [ˈkʰɛvən] Khaleesi — [ˈkʰaliːsi] Khal — [ˈkʰaːɫ] Khorane Sathmantes — [kʰɔˈɹeɪn sɐðˈmantes] Khyzai — [ˈkʰaɪzaɪ] Kojja Mo — [ˈkʰɔːd͡ʒ ˈmoʊ] Kraznys mo Nakloz — [ˈkʰrɑːʒnɨʃ mɵ nəˈkɫoːʒ] Kurz — [ˈkɝːts] Lannister — [ˈlænɨstɚ] Lemore — [ləˈmɔɹ] Lhazar — [ləˈzɑːɹ], [ɬəˈzɑːɾ] Lollys — [ˈlɔlɨs] Lomas — [ˈloʊməs] Loras Tyrell — [ˈlɔɹəs tʰaɪˈɹɛɫ] Loreza Sand — [lɔˈɹeɪzə ˈsænd] Lotho Lornel — [ˈlɔːθoʊ ˈlɔɹnəɫ] Lucion — [ˈluʃən] Lyanna — [liˈænə] Lysa — [ˈlʌɪsə], [ˈlaɪzə] Lys — [ˈlɪs] Maege — [ˈmædʒ] Maegor — [ˈmeɪgɔɹ] Maelys — [ˈmeɪlɨs] maester — [ˈmeɪstɚ] Mance Raidar —[ˈmæns ˈɹeɪdɒɹ], [ˈmæns ˈɹeɪdɚ] Manderly — [ˈmændɚli] Margaery — [ˈmɑɹdʒəɹi], [ˈmɑɹgəɹi] Marghaz zo Loraq — [marˈɣɑːʒ zɵ lɔˈɾɑːχ] Marillion — [məˈɹɪljən] Marwyn — [ˈmɑɹwɨn] Matarys — [məˈtæɹɨs], [məˈtɒɹɨs] Meera — [ˈmiːɹə] Meizo Mahr — [ˈmeɪzoʊ ˈmɑɹ] Mellisandre — [ˌmɛlɨˈsɒndɹ̩] Meraxes — [məˈɹæksiːs] Mhaegan — [ˈmʲeɪgən] Mirri dur Maz — [ˈmiri duɾ ˈmɒz] Missandei — [mɨˈsɒndeɪ], [mɨˈsɒndi] Moat Cailin — [ˌmoʊt ˈkeɪlɨn] Moqorro — [mɵˈkɔːɹoʊ] Moredo Prestayn — [moˈɹeɪdoʊ pɹɛsˈteɪn] Mormont — [ˈmɔɹmɒnt] Mya — [ˈmaɪjə] Mycah — [ˈmʌɪkə] Myrcella — [mɚˈsɛlə] Myr — [ˈmiːɹ] Naerys — [ˈneɪɹɨs] Nage — [ˈnaːgə] niello — [niˈɛloʊ] Nymeria — [nɨˈmeɹiə], [naɪˈmiːɹiə] Obara — [oʊˈbɒɹə] Oberyn Martell — [ˈoʊb(ə)ɹɨn mɒɹˈtɛɫ] Oleanna — [oʊliˈænə] Osfryd — [ˈɔːsfɹiːd] Osha — [ˈɔːʃə] Ossifer — [ˈɔːsɨfɚ] Pentos — [ˈpʰɛntɔs] Perra Frey — [ˈbɪt͡ʃ ˈfɹeɪ] Petyr — [ˈpʰiːtɚ] Prendahl na Ghezn — [pɾɛnˈd̪ɒːɫ nə ˈɣɛʒn̩] Pyat Pree — [ˈpʰɒt ˈpʰɹiː] Pycelle — [pʰaɪˈsɛɫ] Qarro Volentin — [ˈkʰɒːɹoʊ vɵˈlɛntɨn], [ˈkʰaro voˈlẽ̞n̪t̪ĩn] Qarth — [ˈkʰaɹθ] Qohor — [kʰoʊˈhɔr] Qorgyle — [ˈkʰɔɹgaɪɫ] Qos — [ˈkʰɔːʃ] Quaithe — [ˈkʰweɪð] Quentyn — [ˈkʰwɛntɨn] Quhuru Mo — [kʰᵿˈhʊːɹᵿ ˈmoʊ] Qyburn — [ˈkʰaɪbɚn] Raimar Royce — [ˈɹeɪmɒɹ ˈɹɔɪs], [ˈɹeɪmɚ ˈɹɔɪs] Rakharo — [ɹəˈkɒːɹoʊ], [raˈkaɾo] Ramsay — [ˈɹæmzi] Randyll — [ˈɹændəɫ] Reek — [ˈɹiːk] Renly — [ˈɹɛnli] Rhaegal —[ˈɹʷeɪgəɫ] Rhaegar —[ˈɹʷeɪgɑɹ], [ˈɹʷeɪgɚ] Rhaelle — [ˈɹʷeɪɫ] Rhaena — [ˈɹʷeɪnə] Rhaenys — [ˈɹʷeɪnɨs] R’hllor — [ɹʷəˈlɔɹ], [ʀəˈɬoʀ] Rhysling — [ˈɹʷiːzliŋ] Rickard — [ˈɹɪkɚd] Rickon — [ˈɹɪkən] Roose — [ˈɹuːs] Rory — [ˈɹɔɹi] Rugen — [ˈɹuːgən] Ryman — [ˈɹaɪmən] Salladhor Saan — [ˈsæləðɔɹ ˈsaːn] Sallei Paege — [ˈsæli ˈpeɪd͡ʒ] Sandor — [ˈsændɔɹ], [ˈsændɚ] Sansa — [ˈsɒnzə] Selyse — [s(ə)ˈliːz] ser — [ˈsɝː] Serra — [ˈseɹə] Shae — [ˈʃeɪ] Shireen — [ʃɨˈɹiːn] Skagos — [ˈskægɵs] Skahazadhan — [ʃkɒˈhɑʒəðɒn], [skəˈhɒzədən] Skahaz mo Kandaq — [ʃkəˈhɑːʒ mɵ kʰənˈdɑːχ] Stannis — [ˈstænɨs] Sybel — [ˈsaɪbəɫ] Syrio Forel — [ˈsiːɹioʊ fɵˈɹɛɫ], [ˈsiɾio foˈɾɛl] Taena — [ˈtʰeɪna] Targaryen — [tʰɒɹˈgeɪɹjɨn], [tʰaɾˈgæɾiən] Theon — [ˈθiːɒn] Thoros — [ˈθɔːɹos] Tobho Mott — [ˈtʰɔbɵ ˈmɒt] tokar — [ˈtʰokaɾ] Tommen — [ˈtʰɔːmən], [ˈtʰoʊmən] Tormund — [ˈtʰɔːɹmʌnd] Torrhen Stark — [ˈtʰɔːɹən ˈstɒɹk] Trystane Martell — [ˈtɹɪstən mɒɹˈtɛɫ] Tycho Nestoris — [ˈtʰʌikoʊ nɛsˈtɔɹɨs] Tyene — [ˈtʰaɪn], [ˈtʰiːən] Tygette — [ˈtʰaɪgɨt] Tyrek — [ˈtʰaɪɹɛk] Tyrell — [tʰaɪˈɹɛɫ] Tyrion — [ˈtʰiːɹiən] Tyrosh — [tʰɨˈɹɔʃ] Tysha — [ˈtʰɪʃə] Tytos — [ˈtʰʌɪtɵs] Tywin — [ˈtʰaɪwɨn] Umber — [ˈʌmbɚ] Urrigon — [ˈuɹəgən], [ˈuːɹɨgɒn] Vaes Dothrak — [ˈvaɪz d̪ɵˈθɾaːk] Valyria — [vəˈliːɹiə] Varamyr — [ˈvæɹəmɚ] Varys — [ˈvæɹɨs] Velaryon — [vɨˈleɹjɒn], [vɨˈlæɹiən] Vhagar — [ˈveɪgɒɹ], [ˈvægɚ] Visenya — [vɨˈsɛnjə] Viserion — [vɨˈseɹiən] Viserys — [vɨˈseɹɨs] Volantis — [vɵˈlæntɨs] Walder — [ˈwɔːɫdɚ] wayn — [ˈweɪn] Waynwood — [ˈweɪnwʊd] Wendello qar Deeth — [wɛnˈdɛlo xaɾ ˈd̪iːθ] Westeros — [ˈwɛstəɹos] Westerosi — [ˌwɛstəˈɹoʊzi] Whalen — [ˈʍeɪlən] wight — [ˈwʌɪt] Wylis — [ˈwaɪlɨs] Wylla — [ˈwilə] Wyman — [ˈwaɪmən] Xaro Xhoan Daxos — [ˈxaɾo ˈχɔan ˈd̪axoʃ] Xhondo Dhoru — [ˈʃɔnd̪o ˈðoɾu] Ygritte — [ɨˈgɹɪt] Yohn — [ˈjɔːn] Yunkai — [ˈjunkaɪ] Yunkai’i — [junˈkaʔiː] Zei — [ˈzeɪ] Спойлер: Чем руководствовался автор этой транскрипции (англ) I have several different schemes operating here, as that seems to be what Martin is himself doing. I’ve tried to make English‐looking names sound like English, but non‐Westeros names sound foreign. The accent I’m aiming for is that of the Inland North, which is the accent from where GRRM went to university. It has, among others, these properties: It is a rhotic accent like Scots, not a non-rhotic one like RP or Boston. As in RP, it is not part of the cot–caught merger, so [cɒt] and [cɔt] are still distinguished and have not merged into [ɑ]. However, it is part of the Mary–marry–merry merger, so the stressed vowel is indistinguishably any of [ɛ~eɪ~e]. The diphthong in coke is [oʊ]; the diphthong in cake is [eɪ]. It has partial Canadian rising, in that [aɪ] becomes [ʌɪ] before an unvoiced consonant. However, [oʊ] is unaffected. It is not part of the weather–whether merger, so the latter still has a distinctive ‹hw› sound, phonetically written [ʍ] to indicate an unvoiced ‹w›. You won’t find any weird sounds in the Westeros names, but there are a few non‐English sounds in the Essos names, especially from Slaver Bay. The Free Cities names tend to have a Romance Language lilt to them like Italian or Spanish (think Syrio), but the names from Slaver Bay are more exotic: you’re supposed to have a hard time with the Slaver Bay names. ;-} Here are some more notes of my strategies: For Westerosi words, or those pronounced in that fashion, unstressed vowels should usually reduce from their values in stressed position. I’ve used [ɨ] for the reduced ‹e› in roses and [ɵ] for the reduced ‹o› in Volentin. It’s ok to reduce those to schwas, especially is you think roses and Rosa’s sound alike. A ‹y› is usually the same as ‹i› and therefore in unstressed syllables becomes [ɪ] or [ɨ] as in English funny or tyrannical. In contrast, when ‹y› is written by itself in a stressed syllable where a “long” vowel is called for, it becomes [aɪ] as in English Tyler or tyrant. However, Lys is just [lɪs] while Myr is [miːɹ], not [mɝː] or [maɪɹ]. There is a hard Celtic ‹c› as [k] in the obvious places: Cerwyn, Celtigar. The ‹dh› digraph is [ð] as in English leather. I take the ‹ae› digraph to mean [eɪ] instead of [ae], [aɪ], or [æ], although any of those could be made to work if done consistently. I usually take the ‹ai› & ‹ay› digraphs to mean [aɪ] or [eɪ]. The Dothraki phonology follows what we know of the constructed language created for the TV series. It works pretty much like Spanish (pure vowels, dental d’s and t’s, flag versus trilled r, etc) with the addition of the common English digraphs. The h’s are ignored in ‹kh›. I am distinguishing several kinds of ‹r›: the full rolled [r] and the simple flap [ɾ] per Spanish perro and pero for some non‐Westeros names; the rhotacizations [ɝ, ɚ] as in English bird and bother; and the normal English approximant [ɹ] as in English rest. In Westeros names I count a ‹q› without a ‹u› following it as though it were simply ‹k›, because I can’t see the uvular plosive [q] (or its fricative [χ] for ‹qh›) making sense in a throat used to making English sounds. Slaver names should be dental t’s and d’s [t̪, d̪] as in Italian or Spanish, not (denti‐)alveolar ones as in English or German. I went for a Welsh [ɬ] for ‹lh› in foreign Lhazar, but left ‹rh› as a simple normal English [ɹʷ] not a rolled Welsh [r̥] in Rhaegar. Syllable‐final ‹s› and ‹z› in Slaver Bay names palatalize to [ʃ] and [ʒ] as in Portuguese or Northern Spanish. An apical [s̺] would also work to make it sound a bit foreign. I am using a variety of back fricatives in Essos names: [x] for ‹kh› and [ɣ] for ‹gh›. For the little uncapitalized and surely unstressed particle ending in ‑o in the middle of Slaver Bay names like Hizdahr zo Loraq, I’ve reduced the vowel from a normal English [oʊ] to just [ɵ], which is a rounded schwa. One could also get by there using a simple u as in English who, to, or do. Although we do have phonetic mappings for Dothraki as prepared for the TV show, we have nothing at all for Gishcari names. Martin often uses phonetically meaningless spelling variants for his names to give them a more exotic feel without changing their pronunciations, like ‹q› and ‹kh› both representing phonemic /k/, we do not know whether that is truly what he intends here. I have therefore given the Ghiscari names an exotic feel by mapping many of these to fricatives made with the back of your mouth that don’t occur in English. We have very few names of Summer Islanders: Chataya, Kojja Mo, Quhuru Mo, Jalabhar Xho, and Xhondo Dhoru. To help distinguish them a small amount from other Essos names, I have taken ‹xh› to mean /ʃ/, rather than /x/ or /χ/. I’ve also allowed them to undergo normal English vowel reduction, unlike with the non-naturalized Slaver Bay names. I’ve had a tough time with vowel reduction in unstressed syllables, a complex topic. I’ve distinguished between [ə] and [ɨ], and sometimes [ɵ] and [ᵿ]. Martin seems to put vowels, especially diphthongs, in places that they should normally reduce. Problem words include Alysane, Aurane, Margaery, Trystane, Prestayn, Jaehaeris, Cersei, Missandei. Either those are stressed unusually, or else they are unstable and should reduce: more people for Sunday say [sʊndi] not [sʊndeɪ]. Therefore names like Trystane and Prestayne should either have the stress at the end, or else the vowels in those second syllables must reduce to a schwa, just as it does in mountain. Similarly, a final ‹‐on› will soon enough become just [ən], indistinguishably from ‹‐an› or even ‹‐en› : Aeron, Bolston, Barristan, Mhaegan, Thommen, Catelyn, Tyrion. Similarly, a final ‹‐ar› won’t last long as [ɒɹ] before it becomes just [əɹ], here written [ɚ]: Rhaegar, Raimar, Celtigar should wear down over the years to sounding like they end the same way as Lannister or Hoster.